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International Consumer Preferences: Evidence Finder

This interactive table provides evidence for the range of premiums that New Zealand export customers are willing to pay for attributes such as organic certification. It includes academic literature published up to 2022. For more information, click the paper name (if pay-walled, contact the lead author to request a PDF).

Use the filter drop-downs to refine the list by region, country, sector, product or credence attribute.

Last updated: 12:45pm, 9 May 2022

SOURCESUMMARYCOUNTRYREGIONSECTORPRODUCTATTRIBUTES
Aichner, T., Forza, C. and Trentin, A. (2017). The country-of-origin lie: Impact of foreign branding on customers' willingness to buy and willingness to pay when the product's actual origin is disclosed. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 27(1); 43-60.Aichner et al. (2017) examined German consumers' WTP for ice cream and tea products based on their associated country-of-origin. The researchers selected an ice cream product from the USA with a Scandinavian name (Häagen-Dasz) as well as a German tea product with an English name (Milford) in order to gauge German consumers' WTP for the product(s) before and after their country-of-origin was revealed. Reductions in WTP for both product types followed the reveal of the products' respective country-of-origin, including minimum, maximum and mean WTP ranges.GermanyEuropeDairy, Arableicecream, teacountry-of-origin
Akaichi, F., de Grauw, S. and Darmon, P. (2015). Are Fair Trade, carbon footprint and organic attributes competing? Some evidences from Scotland, Netherland and France. Paper presented at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy.Akaichi et al. (2015) assessed consumers WTP for fair-trade (FT), organic and carbon footprint attributes in bananas. A particular objective was to identify if these attributes compete in different markets. 247 consumers were interviewed in three countries. Consumers were willing to pay between €0.08 and €0.14 for fair trade and organic bananas with French participants indicating a slightly higher WTP compared to Scottish and Dutch participants. All respondents were also willing to pay, on average, €0.10 (77% premium of the lowest price) to reduce carbon footprint (1kg on the transport). These WTP values were statistically significantly higher by Dutch over Scottish participants. Scotland, France, Netherlands EuropeHorticulturebananasfair trade, organic, carbon footprint
Aprile et al. (2012). Consumers' valuation of food quality labels: the case of the European geographic indication and organic farming labels. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 36(2); 158-165.Aprile et al. (2012) assessed Italian consumer values for geographical and quality labels in olive oil products. These labels provide a tool to communicate sustainable production or products' value-added qualities. The labels included Protected Designation of Origin, Protected Geographical Indications and organic farming. The results suggested all of these attributes affected consumer preferences with regards to olive oil product choices. Consumer WTP ranged from €1.52 up to €5.60 per litre, being highest for the PDO label with an 86% premium compared with the base price. The second highest WTP was found for the PF label.ItalyEuropeHorticultureolive oilinformation label, organic, country-of-origin
Arnoult, M., Lobb, A., and Tiffin, R. (2010). Willingness to Pay for Imported and Seasonal Foods: A UK Survey. Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, 22(3-4); 234-251.Arnoult et al. (2010) conducted a cross-product CE, focussing on UK consumers' WTP for COO and related attributes, including origin, season, type (GM or organic) alongside price. The sample size were just under 200 for both products. The WTP results indicate strong preferences for local products and an aversion to EU imports for both product types. WTP values were just under £1.94/kilo (or 37%-60% premium of the base price) and approximately -£1.10/kg (-22% and -34%). Seasonality differences were observed: the WTP for lamb increased in spring whereas WTP for strawberries increased in summer. Another difference was observed was that while organic strawberries had higher WTP than GM-free berries, WTP was higher for GM-free lamb than organic lamb. UKEuropeMeat, Horticulturestrawberries, lambcountry-of-origin, organic, genetic modification
Balcombe, K., Bradley, D., Fraser, I. and Hussein, M. (2016). Consumer preferences regarding country of origin for multiple meat products. Food Policy, 64; 49-62.Balcombe et al. (2016) examined UK consumers' WTP for country-of-origin, production methods, product quality and certification attributes in 12 types of poultry, beef, pork and sheep meat products. Results show that participants were willing to pay a premium for each of the attributes across most products, with negative WTP uniformly shown for products of non-UK origin.UKEuropeMeatchicken, turkey, beef, pork, sheep meatcountry-of-origin, production methods, food quality, certification
Bechtold, K.-B. and Abdulai, A. (2014). Combining attitudinal statements with choice experiments to analyse preference heterogeneity for functional dairy products. Food Policy, 47; 97-106.In Germany, Bechtold and Abdulai (2014) estimated consumer WTP for functional dairy products (yoghurt and cream cheese) by linking the choice data with demographics and general attitudes information. The choice alternatives were described as bundles of functional ingredients, health claims and product prices. The data included 1309 responses where each respondent answering a CE for both yoghurt and cheese products. “Functional food skeptics” preferred non-functional dairy products, and vice versa by the “functional food advocates”. The majority of consumers valued dairy products with functional ingredients, such as omega-3, highly. These WTP varied from €0.13 to €0.31/serving of yoghurt and €0.35/serving of cream cheese, or premiums of between 10 and 23%.GermanyEuropeDairyyoghurt, cream cheesefunctional food, health claim, generic attributes
Blare, T., Donovan, J. and del Pozo, C. (2017). Estimates of the willingness to pay for locally grown tree fruits in Cusco, Peru. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 2017; 1-12.Blare et al. (2017) conducted a CE to determine Peruvian consumers' WTP for locally grown tree fruits (avocadoes, apples and pears). The highest overall premiums were shown for local apples, followed by pears and avocadoes.PeruSouth AmericaHorticultureavocadoes, apples, pearslocal production
Boccia, F., Manzo, R.M. and Covino, D. (2019). Consumer behaviour and corporate social responsibility: An evaluation by a choice experiment. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 26 (2019); 97-105.Boccia et al. (2019) conducted a number of choice experiments to examine Italian consumer preferences and WTP for brand, corporate environmental and social responsibility programme participation in relation to ready-meal products. Results indicated approximate WTP for the inclusion of these attributes, with participants willing to pay a €2.46 premium for products with recognisable brand names that also participate in the above programmes. In addition, participants were willing to pay a €1.53 premium for products participating in environmentally friendly social responsibility programmes, while they were only willing to pay a €0.19 premium for only social responsibility programme participation.ItalyEuropeOtherfast food/ready mealssocial responsibility, environment
Britton, L., and Tonsor, G. T. (2019). Consumers' willingness to pay for beef products derived from RNA interference technology. Food Quality and Preference, 75; 187-197.Britton and Tonsor (2019) investigated consumers' WTP to pay for beef products derived from RNA interference technology. This is a new technology that has the potential to reduce the level of hormones and antibiotics used – something that consumers have been demanding. The researchers adopted a choice experiment methodology and collected responses from an online survey of 3000 U.S. individuals. The results showed a negative association between price and the use of RNAi technology in beef steaks. This suggests that consumers will require a discount for beef products produced using RNAi, with specific magnitudes varying substantially based on the label wording faced by consumers. When other controversial attributes are present on the labelling of these products, such as antibiotic or hormone use, there is a potential market share to be gained for products using RNAi technology as an alternative. as opposed to antibiotics. This is important for the future use of the technology and its potential market viability.USNorth AmericaMeatbeef steak, beefantibiotic use
Byrd, E.S., Widmar, N.J.O. and Wilcox, M.D. (2017). Are consumer willing to pay for local chicken breasts and pork chops? Journal of Food Products Marketing, 0(2017); 1-14.Byrd et al. (2017) examined US consumers' WTP for a range of attributes associated with chicken and pork products, including local production, animal welfare and food safety. These attributes were also assessed against a range of certifying bodies, including the USDA, retailers and industry bodies. Results indicated the highest positive WTP for pasture access for chicken, particularly when certified by the USDA.USNorth AmericaMeatchicken, porklocal production, animal welfare, food safety
Calvo Dopico, D., Mendes, R., Silva, H.A., Verrez-Bagnis, V., Perez-Martin, R. and Sotelo, C.G. (2016). Evaluation, signalling and willingness to pay for traceability: A cross-national comparison. Spanish Journal of Marketing – ESIC, 20(2); 93-103.Calvo Dopico et al. (2016) examined European fish consumers' (Portugal, Spain, France, UK and Germany) preferences and WTP for the provision of traceability information with fish products. Around half of participants stated that they would not be willing to pay a premium for this (particularly Portuguese and Spanish participants).Portugal, Spain, France, UK, GermanyEuropeSeafoodfishtraceability
Carlsson, F., Frykblom, P., and Lagerkvist, C.J. (2005). Consumer preferences for food product quality attributes from Swedish agriculture. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 34(4); 366-370.This 2005 study addressed concerns about hypothetical bias in choice experiments, which were a new methodology at the time. To reduce the influence of hypothetical bias the study used a 'cheap-talk' script that thoroughly described the propensity by respondents to exaggerate stated WTP. The resesrchers concluded that WTP was higher without a cheap-talk script. WTP for identical attributes varied across products. The importance of animal welfare attributes seemed to be animal specific. The study identified "surprisingly high premiums" for some animal welfare improved quality attributes: slower growth chicken, outdoor production of pigs, and free-range barn systems in milk production.SwedenEuropeMeat, Other, Arable, Dairybeef, chicken, eggs, flour, pork, milkgenetic modification, production methods, information label, animal welfare, nutritional content, free range
Ceschi, S., Canavari, M. and Castellini, A. (2018). Consumer's Preference and Willingness to Pay for Apple Attributes: A Choice Experiment in Large Retail Outlets in Bologna (Italy). Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing, 30(4); 305-322.Ceschi et al. (2018) used a choice experiment to analyse Italian consumers' WTP for apple attributes, specifically their variety, production method(s) and region(s) of production. The authors found a range of premiums associated with specific regions of production, with consumers willing to pay a higher premium for apples produced in Trentino-Adige (+€1.44 per kg) and Emilia-Romagna (+€1.41 per kg) over imported apples (-€2.12 per kg). Similarly, the organic attribute was shown to have only marginal increased WTP relative to conventional apples (+€0.18 per kg).ItalyEuropeHorticultureapplesgeneric attributes, production methods, local production, organic
Chalak, A. and Abiad, M. (2012). How effective is information provision in shaping food safety related purchasing decisions? Evidence from a choice experiment in Lebanon. Food Quality and Preference, 26(1); 81-92.Chalak and Abiad (2012) studied Lebanese consumers' preferences and purchasing behaviour in context of shawarma sandwiches , a Lebanese fast food, which is considered to contain a high potential for food safety risk. The study attributes included food safety certification (ISO and “ServSafe” food handling program), and contextual factors such as location, serving size and price. The sample included 284 respondents. The information effect was apparent in this study, as this increased the average WTP for food safety certification from a 282 to 314% premium to a 320-431% premium compared with the average price of a small sandwich. WTP for certification was highest for the ISO 22000 type.LebanonMiddle EastOtherfast food/ready mealsgeneric attributes, food safety, certification
Chung, C., Briggeman, B.C. and Han, S. (2012). Willingness-to-pay for beef quality attributes: A latent segmentation analysis of Korean grocery shoppers. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 44(4); 447-459.Chung et al. (2012) focused on heterogeneity in WTP for beef attributes. Countries-of-origin of interest included Korea (i.e. domestic), USA and other exporting countries (e.g. New Zealand). They conducted 1000 interviews amongst Korean consumers using a consumer segment-based approach. Analysis resulted in three consumer segments regarding concerns in relation to GM-beef and the use of antibiotics in production. Over half of the sample were very concerned about the use of GM and antibiotics with WTP around $4.4/lb (20% premium), and about product's origin with WTP around -$8/lb (37% premium) for imported meat. This ‘very concerned' segment held generally higher WTP values.KoreaAsiaMeatbeefgenetic modification, antibiotic use, country-of-origin
Cicia, G., Cembalo, L., Del Giudice, T. and Scarpa, R. (2013). Country-of-Origin Effects on Russian Wine Consumers. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 19(4); 247-260.Cicia et al. (2013) explored consumer preferences and WTP for red wine. Their CE included seven wine types varying by their geographical origin and quality-dependent price. Based on the estimated WTP (Table A66), three distinct segments were found: (1) high-quality-high-price Italian and French wines with WTP varying between €4.8-5.7/bottle, or 96-113% of the base price; (2) a medium-quality wines (WTP of €2.96/bottle, or 54%); and (3) lower quality wines with WTP less than one Euro per bottle. Moreover, the non-CE results showed that wine consumption was generally described as occasional and that certification of origin was considered as a proxy for quality, which was also reflected in respondents' WTP. RussiaEuropeViticulturewinecountry-of-origin
Clark, B., Stewart, G.B., Panzone, L.A., Kyriazakis, I. and Frewer, L.J. (2017). Citizens, consumers and farm animal welfare: A meta-analysis of willingness-to-pay studies. Food Policy, 68; 112-127.Clark et al. (2017) conducted a review of international WTP literature regarding farm animal welfare for pigs, chickens, cattle and fish. The authors estimated a weighted mean WTP (in Euros) for the provision of higher standards of farm animal welfare across a range of studies, measures and differences in WTP by type of production animal. The authors found higher mean WTP for beef cows and fish compared to pigs and broiler chickens. This indicates that consumers prefer the provision of farm animal welfare depending on the type of animal involved in production.Germany, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, France, UK, Sweden, Italy, Netherlands, BelgiumEuropeMeat, Seafoodbeef, fish, pork, chickenanimal welfare, organic, production methods, traceability, local production, country-of-origin, nutritional content, functional food, social responsibility, environment, certification, carbon footprint, water use, genetic modification, generic attributes
Cosmina, M., Gallenti, G., Marangon, F. and Troiano, S. (2015). Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach. Paper prepared for presentation at the EAAE-AAEA Joint Seminar ‘Consumer Behavior in a Changing World: Food, Culture, Society” March 25 to 27, 2015 Naples, Italy.Cosmina et al. (2015) assessed consumer preference for honey attributes including product origin, product type, landscape of the place of origin and price. Most respondents were honey consumers – however, they typically consumed honey products only occasionally. Environmentally friendly consumers had a WTP of between €4.76 and €3.99 (84 and 70%) for organic and local honey respectively while indicating negative WTP for other attributes, whereas pro-intensive production and organic consumers were willing to pay between €2.54 and €8.30 (45 and 146% respectively) for most attributes, with the type of honey valued the highest in both classes. Overall these WTP values indicate strong preferences towards local and organic attributes in honey with some differences in WTP between consumer segments. Only a small section of respondents were not willing to pay any premium for any product other than the local product. ItalyEuropeOtherhoneycountry-of-origin, organic, local production, sensory attributes
de-Magistris, T. and Gracia, A. (2014). Do consumers care about organic and distance labels? An empirical analysis in Spain. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 38(6); 660-669.In a Spanish study, de-Magistris and Gracia (2014) used the “food miles” concept as part of the CE where alternatives vary across almonds produced between 100km and 2000km distances, versus no such labelling at all. The survey participants completed two sets of choice sets, where the second one was used for validity checking. The estimated WTP values show positive preferences with WTP of €0.62-€0.68/100g, or a 30-33% premium, towards an organic label and a 100km label. WTP values towards longer distances were negative and increased according to total distance travelled, hence indicating preferences towards more local products. SpainEuropeHorticulturealmondslocal production, organic, information label
de-Magritis, T. and Gracia, A12A. (2016). Consumers' willingness-to-pay for sustainable food products: The case of organically and locally grown almonds in Spain. Journal of Cleaner Production, 118; 97-104.de-Magritis and Gracia (2016) examined Spanish consumers' WTP for almonds with organic and local attributes, including the inclusion of an EU organic label, as well as product labels indicating a series of distances between the production and consumption areas (i.e. food miles) (100km, 800km and 2,000km). Based on a series of preference questions, the authors placed participants in one of three segments. Results show participants in Segment 2 (mostly female and older participants who positively valued the organic and 100km labels and negatively valued both the 800km and 2,000km label) have the highest negative WTP for higher food miles. Participants in Segment 3 (mostly female and older participants who positively valued both the organic and 100km label but negatively valued only the 2,000km label) have the highest positive WTP for organic and local foods.SpainEuropeHorticulturealmondslocal production, organic, information label
Denver, S. and Jensen, J.D. (2014). Consumer preferences for organically and locally produced apples. Food Quality and Preference, 31; 129-134.Denver and Jensen (2014) focused on the organic and local food (apples) preferences in Denmark. The CE included attributes of food origin ranging from domestic (local or domestic) to imported apples (within or outside of the EU); production method (organic vs. conventional); alongside colour and taste/texture. The survey included in total 637 respondents. While no WTP was calculated, the authors provided an indication of WTP for these two attributes. The participants were willing to pay 5.40 DKK/kg premium for organic apples and 19 DKK/kg for local food. These numbers increased by 97 percentage points if the respondents hold “maximum perception” of the organic attributes based on the PCA. This suggests that, in the case of apples, consumers with positive perceptions of organic food can also have relatively strong preferences for local food but not necessarily vice versa. DenmarkEuropeHorticultureappleslocal production, organic, country-of-origin
Denver, S., Sandoe, P. and Christensen, T. (2017). Consumer preferences for pig welfare – can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork? Meat Science, 129; 140-146.Denver et al. (2017) conducted a WTP study to value Danish consumers' WTP for the provision of relative levels of animal welfare for pigs in pork production. The study was designed to assess consumers' WTP for trade-offs between standard, medium and high levels of animal welfare in production. There was a small difference between WTP for medium and high levels, with many consumers not willing to pay additional premiums to move beyond the medium level of animal welfare.DenmarkEuropeMeatporkanimal welfare
Ding, Y., Veeman, M.M. and Adamowicz, W.L. (2015). Functional food choices: Impacts of trust and health control beliefs on Canadian consumers' choices of canola oil. Food Policy, 52; 92-98.A comparison of GM products and associated health-enhancing (or functional food) benefits were explored by Ding et al. (2015) in Canada. Consumer preferences for GM-food were linked with consumer trust and health-related beliefs. In the context of canola oil products, the selected attributes covered GM or GE information, omega-3 content, COO and price. Consumers were willing to pay a premium of between 12 and 29% of the base price for domestic and/or regular/enhanced omega-3 levels over no label. Stronger health concerns will increase WTP for enhanced omega-3, and negative preferences of GM food can be offset or linked to trust. Men valued GM products more than women, older people and those with higher education were less likely to prefer GM products, and people with higher income valued health benefits more. CanadaNorth AmericaArablecanola oilgenetic modification, functional food, health claim, country-of-origin
Dudinskaya, E., Naspetti, S., Arsenos, G., Caramelle-Holtz, E., Latvala, T., Martin-Collado, D., Orsini, S., Ozturk, E., and Zanoli, R. (2021). European consumers' willingness to pay for red meat labelling attributes. Animals, 11(2); 556-571. Dudinskaya et al. (2021) conducted a large scale willingness to pay study for red meat (beef, lamb, and goat) attributes across seven countries (Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey and the UK). The authors received 2866 valid survey responses, with Beef T-bone, goat chops, lamb chops, and lamb leg cuts the selected cuts in the discrete choice experiment. Results showed that national origin was one of the most important attributes. New Zealand was used as a reference for origin and EU origin was viewed as preferable to New Zealand meat, with the exception of the UK. Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey, UKEuropeMeatbeef, lamb, goatcountry-of-origin, halal, carbon footprint, organic, health claim
Erdem, S. (2015). Consumers' Preferences for Nanotechnology in Food Packaging: A Discrete Choice Experiment. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66(2); 259–279.Erdem (2015) explored UK consumers' preferences for reduced food safety risk in chicken products. The authors tested the impact of incorporating nanotechnology into food product packaging by including this attribute (as a symbol) in one CE and not in the other. Consumers on average preferred chicken with a lower food safety risk and improved animal welfare, regardless of the presence of nanotechnology. WTP values were found to be higher for the “welfare-improved” consumers compared with “conventional” consumers. It also appeared that the presence of nanotechnology could increase WTP for food safety and chicken welfare. A choice debriefing question revealed that around half of the respondents considered the inclusion of such nanotechnology to be “a good idea”, with the remaining responses varying from “not bothered” to “more than concerned”.UKEuropeMeatchickenfood safety, animal welfare
Everett, C., Jensen, K., Boyer, C., and Hughes, D. (2018). Consumers' willingness to pay for local muscadine wine. International Journal of Wine and Business Research, 30(1); 58-73. Another study based in the USA investigated the WTP of consumers to pay for local muscadine wine (a variety of grape often used to make sweet red and white wines) (Everett et al., 2018). The survey highlighted that while muscadines were a regionally important wine, many consumers had never tried them. Overall there was a WTP a premium for locally produced wine. The results showed that for each increase in the importance level of buying local wines, the WTP increased by USD 1.48. In contrast, each percentage point increase in premiums paid for local food held a WTP of USD 0.38.USNorth AmericaViticulturewinelocal production
Ferreira, C., Costa Pinto, L. M., and Lourenco, L. (2021). Effect of region of origin on willingness to pay for wine: An experimental auction. Applied Economics, 52(32); 3715-3729. Ferreira et al (2020) conducted an experimental auction in three different Portuguese wine regions. Extrinsic cues tested were region of origin, profile sensory, food pairing, grape variety, front label design, bottle form, wine history, winemaker, brand, and medals/awards. Results showed that participants placed more value on wine attributes when they had previous knowledge of the region of origin. This is likely due to the influence of wine acceptability and expected quality. Further, as the information available to consumers increased, so too did the WTP. Purchase frequency and less self-reported wine knowledge had a negative effect on WTP, while taste had a positive effect.PortugalEuropeViticulturewinelocal production, sensory attributes, grape variety/vintage
Feucht, Y. and Zander, K. (2017). Consumers' willingness to pay for climate-friendly labelled food in Europe. 11th Igls-Forum, 13-17 February.Feucht and Zander (2017) examined European consumers' (France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain and the UK) WTP for “climate-friendly” milk products (i.e. products with a lower carbon footprint), including products that displayed two types of CO2 label, as well as product claims relating to “climate-friendliness”, local production and organic production (EU organic label). Participants WTP for the inclusion of each of the above in relation to milk products, showing the highest indicated WTP for local production and organic production.France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain, UKEuropeDairymilk productscarbon footprint, local production, organic
Gao, Z., Yu, X., Li, C., McFadden, B.R. (2019). The interaction between country of origin and genetically modified orange juice in urban China. Food Quality and Preference, 71 (2019); 475-484.Gao et al. (2019) used a series of choice experiments to examine urban Chinese consumers' WTP for country of origin and genetically modified organism status of different orange juice products. WTP estimates were produced against alternatives (e.g. a series of origins versus Chinese origin), producing a range of premiums associated with different orange juice product attributes. In particular, the results show a range of discounts associated with country of origin and GM status, with price premiums associated only with changes in product types.ChinaAsiaHorticultureorange juicecountry-of-origin, genetic modification
Gracia, A. (2014). Consumers' preferences for a local food product: A real choice experiment. Empirical Economics, 47; 111-128.Gracia (2014) investigated Spanish consumers' WTP for local lamb products using a simulated market environment with an additional objective of reducing the risk of hypothetical bias in the results. The results indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium of between 9 and 13% for local and “Ternasco” lamb, respectively, over unlabelled or “suckling” lamb, respectively. SpainEuropeMeatlamblocal production
Grashuis, J. and Magnier, A. (2018). Product differentiation by marketing and processing cooperatives: A choice experiment with cheese and cereal products. Agribusiness, 34 (2018); 813-830.Grashuis and Magnier (2018) used two choice experiments to assess US consumers' WTP for a range of attributes associated with cheese and cereal products. This included type of company ownership (cooperative, firm), product origin (local, Wisconsin/Iowa), and family ownership status. In general, WTP for both products was shown to be higher for firm-owned production, with generic local production favoured over specified locations USNorth AmericaDairy, Arablecheese, cereallocal production, company ownership
Grebitus, C., Peschel, A.O. and Hughner, R.S. (2018). Voluntary food labelling: The additive effect of “free from” labels and region of origin. Agribusiness, 34 (2018); 714-727.Grebitus et al. (2018) used a series of online choice experiments to determine US consumers' WTP for Medjool dates with associated GMO, pesticide use and region of origin credentials. In general, this showed that participants were willing to pay positive premiums for all attributes, particularly those with GMO- and pesticide-free status, as well as a preference for dates grown in the state of Arizona over California. USNorth AmericaHorticulturemedjool datesproduction methods, genetic modification, local production
Guney, O. I., and Giraldo, L. (2020). Consumers' attitudes and willingness to pay for organic eggs: A discrete choice experiment study in Turkey. British Food Journal, 122(2); 678-92.Guney and Giraldo (2020) conducted a discrete choice experiment to understand consumer attitudes and WTP for organic eggs in Turkey. Aside socio-demographic characteristics, the authors investigated the egg attributes of production method, brand, colour, and price. Conducting a survey across seven regions of turkey, the researchers gathered a total of 552 responses by the household member responsible for purchases. The results showed that consumers perceive organic eggs to be healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional methods. Also, organic egg production was seen as being more sensitive to animal welfare and ethical issues. TurkeyMiddle EastOthereggfree range, organic, local production, generic attributes
Hastie, M., Ashman, H., Torrico, D., Ha, M., and Warner, R. (2020). A mixed methods approach for the investigation of consumer responses to sheepmeat and beef. Foods, 9(2); 126-142.Hastie, Ashman, Torrico, Ha and Warner (2020) compared perceptions towards sheepmeat and beef in Australia. The research offers an interesting comparison of dry-aged and wet-aged meat, as well as different animal species within a WTP framework. In terms of sensory perceptions, the authors asked consumers about tenderness, overall liking, flavour, juiciness, odour liking, quality, healthiness, and premiumness. Wet-aged beef was most likely to be rated as “better than everyday quality”, while the dry-aged beef was most likely to be rated as “good everyday quality”. This pattern was also seen in sheepmeat consumption. On average, consumers were willing to pay up to 50–60 AUD per kg for premium quality beef, and 30–40 AUD per kg for premium quality sheepmeat, with prices decreasing with quality grade. AustraliaAustralasiaMeatsheep meat, beeffood quality, sensory attributes
Hempel, C. and Hamm, U. (2016). How important is local food to organic-minded consumers? Appetite, 96; 309-318.Hempel and Hamm (2015) examined German consumers' preferences and WTP for organic and local attributes across a range of food products, including beef steak, butter, apples and flour products. Based on a series of questions regarding preferences for organic and local products, the authors segmented participants into two groups: organic-minded consumers (OMC) and non-organic-minded consumers (NOMC). Both groups indicated the highest WTP for local beef steak products (as opposed to ‘from a neighbouring country').GermanyEuropeMeat, Dairy, Horticulture, Arable beef steak, butter, apples, flour, beeforganic, local production
Hung, Y., and Verbeke, W. (2018). Sensory attributes shaping consumers' willingness-to-pay for newly developed processed meat products with natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrate. Food Quality and Preference, 70; 23-31.Hung and Verbeke (2018) conducted a WTP analysis of the sensory attributes of cooked sausage and cooked ham in Belgium and the Netherlands respectively. They found that WTP was positively influenced by a higher overall liking, appearance familiarity and a better colour, and negatively influenced by a stronger experience of aftertaste and darker colour. Belgium, NetherlandsEuropeMeatporksensory attributes
Kallas, Z., Borrisser-Pairó, F., Martínez, B., Vieira, C., Rubio, B., Panella, N., …, Gil, J.M. (2015). The impact of the sensory experience on scale and preference heterogeneity: The GMNL model approach applied to pig castration and meat quality. Paper prepared for presentation at the EAAE-AAEA Joint Seminar ‘Consumer Behavior in a Changing World: Food, Culture, Society. March 25-27, Naples, Italy.Kallas et al. (2015) designed a study using a simulated market setting to assess the impact of a possible ban on surgical castration of pigs in the EU. This study also included a sensory parameter by including a scent and taste test between two CEs. Participants were willing to pay a small amount for the welfare attribute while the sensory impact resulted in some differences in WTP estimates. The results also show that participants' WTP was lower for the manufacturer's own brand compared to the private brand. SpainEuropeMeatporkanimal welfare
Kallas, Z., Escobar, C. and Gil, J.M. (2013). Analysis of consumers' preferences for a special-occasion red wine: A dual response choice experiment approach. Food Quality and Preference, 30(2); 156-168. Kallas et al. (2013) focused on elements involved in wine choices for a special occasion, such as origin, people's experience and knowledge of wine (“wine references”), grape type and price. In the survey, 400 respondents were asked to complete two separate wine CEs. The results indicate the most preferred origins were non-imported wines, particularly the regional Catalonian wine with WTP around 2.60-3.10 €/bottle (or around 30% of the base price). Also experience and type of wine influenced consumers' wine choices, as indicated by the relatively higher WTP estimates. SpainEuropeViticulturewinegrape variety/vintage, generic attributes, country-of-origin
Kallas, Z., Vitale, M. and Gil, J.M. (2019). Health Innovation in Patty Products: The Role of Food Neophobia in Consumers' Non-Hypothetical Willingness to Pay, Purchase Intention and Hedonic EvaluationA31. Nutrients, 11 (2019); doi:10.3390/nu11020444.Kallas et al. (2019) used a discrete choice experiment to determine Spanish consumers' WTP for health-enhancing properties in pork patty products before and after a hedonic taste test of product types. Specifically, this involved innovative pork patty products with enhanced health claims through the addition of Porcini (added dietary fibre) and blueberries (added antioxidants). There was a generally higher WTP for both traditional and innovative pork products by consumers with lower food neophobia, as well as a perceived higher WTP prior to tasting for those innovative products including blueberries over Porcini SpainEuropeMeatporkhealth claim, sensory attributes
Khan, J., Khanal, A. R., Lim, K. H., Jan, A. U., and Shah, S. A. (2018). Willingness to pay for pesticide free fruits: Evidence from Pakistan. Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, 30(4); 392-408. This paper analyzes factors influencing consumption decision of pesticide free fruits (PFF) and estimates the willingness to pay (WTP) price premium for PFF in Pakistan. A contingent valuation survey of 200 households was conducted using face to face interview and payment card method. Results suggested that 93.5% respondents were WTP higher prices for PFF. Remarkably, around 35% respondents were WTP 16–20% higher prices and 24% respondents were WTP 6–10% higher prices for PFF than the existed conventional price. PakistanMiddle EastHorticulturefruitproduction methods, organic
Lagerkvist, C.J., Berthelsen, T., Sundström, K. and Johansson, H. (2014). Country of origin or EU/non-EU labelling of beef? Comparing structural reliability and validity of discrete choice experiments for measurement of consumer preferences for origin and extrinsic quality cues. Food Quality and Preference, 34; 50-61.In Sweden, Lagerkvist et al. (2014) focused on COO and ethical cues in the presence or absence of price attribute,. A large of range attributes with quality and ethical cues were included in the study where the absence of labelling information was used as a reference point. A sample of over 1,000 participants completed the survey. These results show that consumers were willing to pay an average 10% premium for a verified socila responsibility labelling in beef products – approximately four times lower than COO information. COO was also found to be the top ranked attribute in both samples. SwedenEuropeMeatbeefcountry-of-origin, traceability, animal welfare, social responsibility, production methods
Lagerkvist, C.J., Hess, S. and Johansson, H. (2017). How Much Credence Does It Take? Evidence on the Trade-Off between Country-Of-Origin Information and Credence Attributes for Beef from a Choice Experiment in Sweden. Foods, 84(6); 1-19.Lagerkvist et al. (2017) examined Swedish consumers' WTP for a range of credence attributes in relation to beef products using a discrete choice experiment. Attributes included country-of-origin labelling, traceability to various parts of the supply chain, animal health and welfare, human health, social responsibility, and production methods. Participants indicated a range of positive WTP values for all attributes, particularly to move from basic to slightly improved levels.SwedenEuropeMeatbeefcountry-of-origin, traceability, animal welfare, health claim, social responsibility, production methods
Lai, J., Wang, H.W, Ortega, D.L. and Widmar, N.J.O. (2018). Factoring Chinese consumers' risk perceptions into their willingness to pay for pork safety, environmental stewardship, and animal welfare. Food Control, 85 (2018); 423-431.Lai et al. (2018) used a series of choice experiments to determine Chinese consumers' (Beijing and Shanghai) WTP for a range of attributes of pork products, including environmental, food safety and animal welfare standards, as well as country of origin. Results showed generally higher WTP for all attributes from Shanghai participants, with food safety, Chinese origin and environmental standards having the highest associated WTP values.ChinaAsiaMeatporkenvironment, food safety, animal welfare, country-of-origin
Li, X., Jensen, K.L., Clark, C.D. and Lambert, D.M. (2016). Consumer willingness to pay for beef grown using climate friendly production practices. Food Policy, 64; 93-106.Li et al. (2016) examined US consumers' household WTP for a programme aimed at reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions associated with beef production. The authors created four consumer segments based on their willingness to support a programme certifying “carbon-friendly” beef products. Consumers in ‘supports and will pay more' and ‘willing to pay specific premium for certified beef' segments would be willing to pay an average US$306 per year to support this programme (equating to 51.6% of their average annual total beef product spend). USNorth AmericaMeatbeefcarbon footprint
Lilavanichakul, A. and Boecker, A. (2013). Consumer Acceptance of a New Traceability Technology: A Discrete Choice Application to Ontario Ginseng. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 16(4); 25-50.Lilavanichakul and Boecker (2013) explored Canadian consumer acceptance of traceability technology in ginseng products. This was explored amongst trade-offs with the products origin and manufacturer attributes. Estimated WTP values implied a 16% premium of the base price ($2.78/bottle) for having an internal tag for traceability/quality assurance. However, this WTP was relatively lower than for the inclusion of a Guarantee label or Canadian Ginseng product. The negative interaction term with a WTP of -$1.67/bottle for the simultaneous use of the ‘Canadian Guaranteed' and ‘Product of Canada' labels suggest that these attributes could be seen as substitutes.CanadaNorth AmericaOtherginsengtraceability, country-of-origin, certification
Lim, K.H., Hu, W., Maynard, L.J. and Goddard, E. (2014). A taste for safer beef? How much does consumers' perceived risk influence willingness to pay for country-of-origin labeled beef. Agribusiness, 30(1); 17-30.Lim et al. (2014) focused on the valuation of COO information alongside trade-offs such as quality (e.g. tenderness), production practices (use of hormones and antibiotics), food safety (identified by testing and/or traceability), and price of beef. A nationwide survey was conducted with a sample size of 1000. WTP was estimated for the COO attribute. The results show that, on average, consumers preferred domestic beef, with negative WTP shown for imported products indicating a compensation of around $5-$7/lb to achieve these levels. COO preferences were related to the perceived food-safety level of the country. USNorth AmericaMeatbeefcountry-of-origin, production methods, food safety, generic attributes
Merritt, M.G., Delong, K.L., Griffith, A.P. and Jensen, K.L. (2018). Consumer willingness to pay for Tennessee Certified Beef. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 50(2); 233-254.Merritt et al. (2018) undertook a choice experiment to examine US consumers' WTP for a range of beef product attributes: Tennessee Certified Beef, Certified Angus Beef, grass-fed, Master Quality Raised Beef and no hormones administered. In addition, WTP estimates were carried out for two types of beef products – USDA Choice boneless ribeye beef steak, and USB Choice ground beef. Furthermore, participants undertaking a choice experiment for either product were evenly distributed into either a control treatment (who were shown no additional information about the attributes of each product) or an information treatment (who were shown additional information about the attributes of each product).There was generally higher WTP for all attributes by those in the Information Treatment segment, with the highest overall WTP for both product types across both segments to be for a combination of Tennessee Certified Beef (TCB) and grass-fed attributes (Merritt et al., 2018).USNorth AmericaMeatbeefquality, country-of-origin, production methods
Miller, S., Driver, T., Velasquez, N. and Saunders, C. (2014). Maximising Export Returns (MER): Consumer behaviour and trends for credence attributes in key markets and a review of how these may be communicated. AERU Research Report No. 332, July 2014. Agribusiness & Economics Research Unit (AERU), Lincoln University: Lincoln, New Zealand.This 2014 report is part of a research project ‘Maximising Export Returns (MER)’, an MBIE funded three year project undertaken by the AERU at Lincoln University. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial literature review to identify types of credence attributes, explore consumer preferences for them as well as provide an overview of “smart” technologies being used by consumers internationally.Overall, this review indicates that there exists research on credence attributes in many international markets, and that consumers place value on these product attributes. However, the review also shows a gap in the literature regarding the credence attributes in some countries, namely in Singapore and Indonesia.UK, China, India, Singapore, Indonesia, US, Spain, Japan, Sweden, Finland, DenmarkEurope, Asia, North AmericaMeat, Dairy, Arable, Other, Horticulturelamb, milk products, pork, beef, chicken, eggs, milk, flour, beef steak, rib-eye steak, bison steak, pearstraceability, food safety, food quality, certification, information label, eco label, organic, animal welfare, carbon footprint, genetic modification, production methods, functional food, country-of-origin, local production, environment, fair trade
Morales, L., and Higuchi, A. (2018). Is fish worth more than meat? How consumers' beliefs about health and nutrition affect their willingness to pay more for fish than meat. Food Quality and Preference, 65; 101-109.Morales and Higuchi (2018) investigated how consumer beliefs about health and nutrition affect the WTP more for fish than beef, chicken, and pork in Lima, Peru. Factors explored were all in relation to fish, exploring knowledge, health and nutrition, familiarity, taste preference, negative effects, and price. Based upon this it was found that higher household income increases premiums for beef and chicken, while larger household sizes had the opposite effect. In addition, those who were older were less likely to be willing to pay a premium for fish. Taste preference was a significant driver for an increase in WTP for fish versus chicken and pork, while perceptions of health and nutrition for the family increased the WTP for fish compared to beef and chicken.PeruSouth AmericaMeatbeef, chicken, pork, fishgeneric attributes, health claim
Mueller Loose, S. and Remaud, H. (2013). Impact of corporate social responsibility claims on consumer food choice: A cross-cultural comparison. British Food Journal, 115(1); 142-166.Mueller Loose and Remaud (2013) explored North American and European consumer preferences for wine choices which involve corporate social responsibility claims alongside product price. The survey targeting wine consumers resulted in between 982 and 2,027 respondents in different countries. Compared to European markets, North American consumers seemed to have a higher level of trust and claim awareness. Over all markets, the average WTP was highest for organic claims at around €1.20/bottle (or 14% premium) - twice as much than the WTP for the environmental claims. Across the markets, not all attributes were statistically significant in all countries, such as for social and environmental responsibility. In most of these markets, the organic attribute had the highest WTP, particularly in France and Germany. Overall, this cross-country study illustrates that differences might exist between different developed markets. US, Canada, France, Germany, UK North America, EuropeViticulturewinesocial responsibility, organic, carbon footprint
Mueller, S., Lockshin, L., Saltman, Y. and Blanford, J. (2010). Message on a bottle: The relative influence of wine back label information on wine choice. Food Quality and Preference, 21(1); 22-32.In another special occasion wine study by Mueller et al. (2010), the objective was to understand the importance of different wine label statements for regular wine consumers in Australia, not calculate WTP. The CE included a relatively large number of attributes either present or not on the label, plus price. Overall, the most influential label attributes associated with the wine choices were price, history, taste descriptors and food pairing. In contrast, environmental information, ingredients and website information on the labels had a relatively smaller, or negative, impact on choices. An additional analysis revealed that just over half of the participants, generally, read the wine labels and found them interesting as well as helpful. AustraliaAustralasiaViticulturewineinformation label
Mugera, A., Burton, M. and Downsborough, E. (2017). Consumer Preference and Willingness to Pay for a Local Label Attribute in Western Australian Fresh and Processed Food Products. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 23(4); 452-472.Mugera et al. (2017) examined Australian consumers' WTP for chicken and yogurt products based on their preferences for a range of attributes, including local production, free range, product quality and the size of the producer. This was based on whether a product carried a local food label, was certified free range, or contained other information relating to the attributes listed. This showed a range of additional premiums for each of the product types and attributes based on a range of demographic variables, including gender and type of area.AustraliaAustralasiaMeat, Dairychicken, yoghurtcountry-of-origin, free range, production methods
Nishimura, T. (2021). The effect of greenhouse pollination methods on consumers' willingness to pay for tomatoes in Japan. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 53; 186-208.Nishimura (2021) investigated the effect of greenhouse pollination methods on consumers WTP for tomatoes in Japan. The study was driven by the phasing out of non-native bumblebees as greenhouse tomato pollinators in Japan. This was largely related to the ecological risks of non-native species and the results of the WTP survey of 1250 consumers found that consumers valued the use of non-native bumblebees' more than hormonal treatment, and native more than non-native bees. This WTP was further increased by informing consumers of the ecological risks of non-native bumblebees to the Japanese ecosystem. JapanAsiaHorticulturetomatoesanimal welfare, biodiversity, production methods, functional food
O'Brien, K.A. and Teisl, M.F. (2004). Eco-information and its effect on consumer values for environmentally certified forest products. Journal of Forest Economics, 10; 75-96.Some sectors of the forest products industry have adopted environmental certification and labeling as a business strategy. Typically, the designation of these products is through the use of eco-seals (environmental ‘seals-of-approval’). For these programs to be effective, consumers must first care about the disclosed information. We find consumers are willing to pay for these products but changes in labeling policy affects their willingness to pay. Thus, there appears to be a demand for environmentally certified forest products, however, the current use of eco-seals may preclude the collection of an actual premium.Othercertification, information label
Ortega, D.L., Wang, H.H. and Olynk Widmar, N.J. (2014). Aquaculture imports from Asia: an analysis of U.S. consumer demand for select food quality attributes. Agricultural Economics, 45(5); 625-634.Ortega et al. (2014) explored consumer WTP for imported seafood products for which past food contamination and adulteration incidents may have impacted on consumer preferences for Chinese tilapia. Two surveys were conducted (for shrimp and Chinese tilapia products) with 335 respondents each. Consumers were willing to pay more for enhanced food safety: $10.65/lb for domestic shrimp, $3.71/lb shrimp from China, and $4.12/lb shrimp from Thailand. The respective premiums were 118%, 41% and 46%. A similar relationship was found for no-antibiotic use and environmentally friendly production, which were both associated with a higher WTP for the US product by US consumers. USNorth AmericaSeafoodshrimp, tilapia, fishcountry-of-origin, certification
Ortega, D.L., Wang, H.H., Wu, L., and Hong, S.J. (2015). Retail channel and consumer demand for food quality in China. China Economic Review, 36; 359-366.Ortega et al. (2015) explored consumer preferences and WTP for chicken, pork and egg product attributes across various retail channels in China (wet markets, domestic supermarkets, international supermarkets). Three hundred consumers were interviewed for each food product with an equal number of participants from each retail channel. While consumer WTP for food safety was mostly similar across the different retail channels, with premiums from 165% to 267% compared to base price, these varied across product types. “Green food” certification was valued higher (up to 195% premium) than organic certification across all products and retailers. ChinaAsiaMeat, Otherpork, chicken, eggfood safety, animal welfare, organic, price, "green" claim
Paci, F., Danza, A., Del Nobile, M.A. and Conte, A. (2018). Consumer acceptance and willingness to pay for fresh fish-burger: A choice experiment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172 (2018); 3128-3137.Paci et al. (2018) examined Italian consumers' WTP for the inclusion of environmental and health attributes in fresh fish burger products, finding a WTP of up to an additional 0.57 Euro for the “environment” attribute and 0.37 Euro for the “health” attribute.ItalyEuropeSeafoodfish burger, fishenvironment, health claim
Poelmans, E. and Rousseau, S. (2016). How do chocolate lovers balance taste and ethical considerations? British Food Journal, 118(2); 343-361.Poelmans et al (2016) found that on average, respondents were willing to pay 11 euros more for 250g fair trade labeled chocolate compared to conventional chocolate. However, taste clearly dominates ethical considerations. The authors could distinguish three consumer segments, each with a different tradeoff between taste and fair trade. One group clearly valued fair trade positively, a second group valued fair trade to a lesser extent and a third group did not seem to value fair trade. BelgiumEuropeOtherchocolatefair trade, sensory attributes
Pomarici, E., Asioli, D., Vecchio, R. and Naes, T. (2018). Young consumers' preferences for water-saving wines: An experimental study. Wine Economics and Policy, 7 (2018); 65-76.Pomarici et al. (2018) used an experimental auction method to assess younger Italian consumers' (n = 200) WTP for a range of water-related attributes of wine products. Specifically, this included three different wine products – a conventional wine product (i.e. no water saving), a water saving front-of-pack labelled product, and a water saving back-of-pack labelled product. The authors showed that participants bid a median price of €4.16 for the conventional wine product, and a median price of €4.51 (€0.35 premium) and €4.32 (€0.16 premium) for the front-of-pack and back-of-pack labelled wine products respectively.ItalyEuropeViticulturewinewater use, information label
Probst, L., Houedjofonon, E., Ayerakwa, H.M. and Haas, R. (2012). Will they buy it? The potential for marketing organic vegetables in the food vending sector to strengthen vegetable safety: A choice experiment study in three West African cities. Food Policy, 37(3); 296-308.Probst et al. (2012) explored the potential for marketing certified organic vegetables in three West African cities (Cotonou in Benin, Accra in Ghana and Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso). In particular, certified organic production was examined as a potential strategy to improve food safety - one CE for the food vendors' choices of tomatoes (a common ingredient in meals) and another for consumer meal choices when eating out. Vendors were willing to pay, at median, US$0.85 for organic certification of fresh tomatoes, which equals to a premium between 12 and 53% of typical retail price. Consumers were willing to pay, at median, just over US$1 per meal if the food served contained only certified organic vegetables. This equates to around a 19% premium on average meal price for restaurants, 75% premium for small food businesses, and 177% premium on average meal price for street food vendors.Benin, Ghana, Burkina FasoAfricaHorticulturevegetables, tomatoesorganic, certification
Risius, A. and Hamm, U. (2017). The effect of information on beef husbandry systems on consumers' preferences and willingness to pay. Meat Science, 124; 9-14.Risius and Hamm (2017) examined the effects of exposure to communication materials on German consumers' WTP for organic and animal husbandry attributes in relation to beef products. The authors tested consumer preferences and WTP for beef products before and after being shown communication materials regarding different animal husbandry and production methods. GermanyEuropeMeatbeeforganic, animal welfare
Saunders, C., Guenther, M., Tait, P. and Saunders, J. (2013). Assessing consumer preferences and willingness to pay for NZ food attributes in China, India and the UK. Contributed Paper prepared for presentation at the 87th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Economics Society, University of Warwick, United Kingdom.Saunders et al (2013) assessed preferences, attitudes and WTP for basic attributes such as price and quality, but also environmental and social attributes such as recyclability and animal welfare, in three important export markets for New Zealand’s food exports. The choice experiment was conducted in China, India and UK in November 2012 with a sample size of 2067 participants which was comprised of 686 participants in China, 695 participants in India and 686 participants in the UK. TThis study found that consumers valued the attributes positively and were willing to pay up to 10% extra for certified food products. In many cases India and China valued attributes more than in the UK especially environmental quality, animal welfare and recyclable attributes. The LTEM showed the impact on New Zealand and EU (European Union-27) producer returns was significant.China, India, UKAsia, EuropeMeat, Dairylamb, milk productsgeneric attributes, food quality, social responsibility, environment, animal welfare, country-of-origin, certification, traceability, organic, fair trade, food safety, carbon footprint
Schaufele, I. and Hamm, U. (2017). Consumers' perceptions, preferences and willingness-to-pay for wine with sustainability characteristics: A reviewA55. Journal of Cleaner Production, 147; 379-394.Schaufele and Hamm (2017) conducted a review of international WTP literature regarding WTP for the inclusion of a range of sustainability credentials in wine products. The authors found that consumers across different countries showed a willingness to pay a premium for wine products with associated sustainable production methods, including environmental friendly, local and organic production methods production methods, environment, local production, organic
Sellers, R. (2016). Would you pay a price premium for a sustainable wine? The voice of the Spanish consumer. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 8; 10-16. Florence “Sustainability of Well-Being International Forum”. 2015: Food for Sustainability and not just food, FlorenceSWIF2015.Sellers (2016) examined Spanish consumers' WTP for sustainable wine products based on their market segment and levels of knowledge of wine culture. Premiums that Spanish consumers are willing to pay may be based on their level of knowledge of wine culture. Spanish consumers in different segments may be willing to pay higher premiums than others. For example, a higher percentage of urban-based consumers may be willing to pay a higher premium than consumers in the ‘traditional segment'. This study shows that relative levels of expertise as well as socio-demographic segmentation may affect WTP for sustainability wine products in Spain.SpainEuropeViticulturewinegeneric attributes
Tait, P., Rutherford, P., Driver, T., Li, X., Saunders, C., Dalziel, P., and Guenther, M. (2018). Consumer insights and willingness to pay for attributes: New Zealand yogurt products in Shanghai, China (Research Report No. 347). Lincoln University: Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit.Tait et al (2018) explored Chinese consumers WTP for New Zealand yogurt products. This study was targeted specifically to consumers in Shanghai, with a sample size of 837. The attributes included in the choice experiment were enhanced animal safety, enhanced animal welfare, organic production, environmental sustainability, social responsibility, COO, price per kg, and yogurt type. Average willingness to pay for New Zealand country-of-origin was 143% of the average price used in the choice experiments (prices were determined by the distribution of observed market prices in Shanghai, December 2017). ChinaAsiaDairyyoghurtanimal welfare, organic, environment, social responsibility, country-of-origin
Tait, P., Saunders, C., Dalziel, P., Rutherford, P., Driver, T., and Guenther, M. (2020). New York Sauvignon Blanc wine consumer consumption behaviour and product preferences: A Latent Class Analysis (Research Report 364). Lincoln University: Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit.Tait et al (2020) explored New York wine consumers WTP for Sauvignon Blanc wine. Using a choice experiment methodology, the authors received 495 testable survey responses, assessing the attributes of biodiversity management, water management, by-product management, energy management, pest and disease management, greenhouse gas management, organic production, social responsibility, origin, Māori production, critic rating, and price. Most respondents were concerned about pesticides and additives, and interested in improved sustainability reporting. The researchers identified three distinct consumer groups with each group made up of 47%, 22%, and 31% of respondents, and each of these had differing WTP for attributes. USNorth AmericaViticulturewinebiodiversity, water use, production methods, carbon footprint, social responsibility, Māori production, organic
Tait, P., Saunders, C., Dalziel, P., Rutherford, P., Driver, T., and Guenther, M. (2021). California apple consumer consumption behaviours and product preferences: A latent class analysis (Research Report 366). Lincoln University: Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit.Tait et al (2021) investigated apple consumption by Californian consumers. The researchers investigated a number consumer preferences such as brand, sensory and credence attributes before conducting a WTP analysis using a choice experiment methodology. Attributes explored in this were appearance, social responsibility, organic production, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, genetic engineering, and price. The choice experiment highlighted three distinct apple consumer groups in California representing 17 percent, 27%, and 56% of those surveyed. USNorth AmericaHorticultureapplessocial responsibility, organic, carbon footprint, genetic modification
Tait, P., Saunders, C., Guenther, M. and Rutherford, P. (2016). Emerging versus developed economy consumer willingness to pay for environmentally sustainable food production: A choice experiment approach comparing Indian, Chinese and United Kingdom lamb consumers. Journal of Cleaner Production, 124; 65-72. Tait et al. (2016) conducted a cross-country analysis between developed and developing economies (UK vs. China and India). The authors explored preferences across certified environmental attributes (GHG, biodiversity, and water quality), animal welfare, food safety, country-of-origin label and price in relation to lamb products. Food safety, followed by animal welfare, appeared to be the most valued attributes with WTP values of between 9% and 49% more for a certified product. Across the countries the GHG certification was valued most, although not by much. While UK consumers preferred domestic products, consumers in developing markets were not likely to choose the domestic product or pay for it. Indian respondents had higher WTP for environmental attributes compared with UK and Chinese consumers. UK, China, IndiaEurope, AsiaMeatlambcarbon footprint, biodiversity, water quality, animal welfare, food safety, country-of-origin, certification
Teratanavat, R., and Hooker, N.H. (2006). Consumer valuations and preference heterogeneity for a novel functional food. Food Science, 71(7); S533–S541.Teratanavat et al (2006) explorrf differences in consumer preferences and valuations for a novel functional food product: a tomato juice containing soy. Data were collected from 1704 households in Ohio through a mail survey. The choice experiment manipulates whether or not the product is organic, whether it contains natural or fortified nutrients, and product price. Results indicate that health benefits and ingredient naturalness are positively valued.USNorth AmericaHorticulturetomatoes, tomato juicefunctional food, health claim, nutritional content,
Ubilava, D., Foster, K.A., Lusk, J.L. and Nilsson, T. (2011). Differences in consumer preferences when facing branded versus non-branded choices. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 10(2), 61-70.Ubilava et al. (2011) compared US consumers' WTP for the certification of credence attributes for branded and non-branded products. Selected credence attributes included antibiotic use, animal welfare and environmental friendliness in the production process where, in a split-sample, some CEs also included a product brand. WTP results range from 4 to 28% (0.2 to 1 $/lb) for certified antibiotic-free, environmentally-friendly and animal welfare attributes. The study also reported a greater variation in WTP for the non-branded case.USNorth AmericaMeatporkantibiotic use, animal welfare, environment
Uchida, H., Onozaka, Y., Morita, T. and Managi, S. (2014). Demand for ecolabeled seafood in the Japanese market: A conjoint analysis of the impact of information and interaction with other labels. Food Policy, 44; 68–76.Uchida et al. (2014) examined Japanese consumer preferences for salmon, taking into account two-way interactions motivated by consumer valuations of different product attributes in relation to ecolabel characteristics. The study included a split-sample CE across three types of information effects regarding fisheries (specifically overfishing and the decline of fish-stock). A nationwide survey included in total 3,370 responses. Japanese consumers were willing to pay a 27% premium for the domestic fish compared to imported fish, with a similar premium found for the ecolabel. Added information increased the value of the eco-label, although marginally, when the FAO or science based information were considered credible and interesting.JapanAsiaSeafoodsalmon, fisheco label, country-of-origin, production methods, information label
Van Loo, E.J., Caputo, V., Nayga Jr., R.M. and Verbeke, W. (2014). Consumers' valuation of sustainability labels on meat. Food Policy, 49; 137-150.Van Loo et al. (2014) combined different environmental and ethical attributes in a CE of chicken products, segmenting participants into income brackets. The attributes were presented in different logos, labels and claims associated with production, with CE results showing a consumer preference for product labels or claims over not having them at all. Average WTP is higher for free-range claims (43-93%), with respondents also favouring the introduction of domestic or EU-organic logos, carbon footprint and animal welfare labels.BelgiumEuropeMeatchickenfree range, organic, carbon footprint, animal welfare
Van Loo, E.J., Caputo, V., Nayga Jr., R.M., Meullenet, J.-F. and Ricke, S.C. (2011). Consumers' willingness to pay for organic chicken breast: Evidence from choice experiment. Food Quality and Preference, 22(7); 603-613.Van Loo et al. (2011) assessed US consumers' WTP for different organic label types on chicken products. Results found positive premiums for organic labelling, with higher premiums associated with the USDA organic label ($3.6/lb or 104% premium) over the generic label ($1.2/lb or 35%). The premiums consumers were willing to pay for organic chicken increased by the frequency of purchase. Females had a higher WTP than males, having more children reduced WTP, higher income increased WTP for products with organic labels. USNorth AmericaMeatchickenorganic
Van Loo, E.J., Caputo, V., Nayga Jr., R.M., Seo, H.-S., Baoyue Zhang, B. and Verbeke, W. (2015). Sustainability labels on coffee: Consumer preferences, willingness-to-pay and visual attention to attributes. Ecological Economics, 118; 215-225.Van Loo et al. (2015) focused on consumer preferences for sustainability certification of coffee products. The sustainability labels considered were Fair Trade (FT), Rainforest Alliance, USDA Organic and carbon footprint, the latter of which is less common in the US coffee market. A novelty in the study was a focus on visual attention on coffee packages. Relative WTP values show that respondents, on average, were willing to pay the most ($1.16/12oz, or 16% premium) for USDA certified coffee, and up to a 19% premium for ‘sustainability and price conscious' consumers, which included most of the sample. Fixating more attention on a particular attribute related to higher WTP. Hence this study illustrated that sustainability-motivated consumers are also likely to seek information about sustainability credentials.USNorth AmericaOthercoffeecarbon footprint, fair trade, certification
Van Wezemael, L., Caputo, V., Nayga Jr, R.M., Chryssochoidis, G. and Verbeke, W. (2014). European consumer preferences for beef with nutrition and health claims: A multi-country investigation using discrete choice experiments. Food Policy, 44; 167-176.Van Wezemael et al. (2014) conducted a European cross-country study exploring consumer preferences and WTP for nutrition and health claims in relation to beef steak. The results suggest the valuation of nutritional and health claims varies across countries, indicating existence of country-specific marketing opportunities when considering nutrition and health claims on beef products, such as information regarding product protein levels in the UK.Netherlands, Belgium, France, UKEuropeMeatbeef steak, beefnutritional content, health claim
Viegas, I., Nunes, L.C., Madureira, L., Fontes, M.A. and Santos, J.M. (2014). Beef Credence Attributes: Implications of Substitution Effects on Consumers' WTP. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 65(3); 600-615.Viegas et al. (2014) estimated Portuguese consumers' WTP for animal welfare in the context of testing whether premiums paid for credence attributes can justify higher associated production costs. Tthe estimated WTP suggests that the highest value was placed on food safety, ranging from 7-16 euros/kg, followed by animal welfare and environmental protection. An important finding was significant interaction effects, suggesting that animal welfare and environmental attributes may be proxies for food safety. PortugalEuropeMeatbeefanimal welfare, food safety, environment
Vlaeminck, P., Vandoren, J. and Vranken, L. (2016). Consumers' willingness to pay for Fair Trade chocolate. In The Economics of Chocolate by M.P. Squicciarini and J. Swinnen (Eds.) pp. 180-191. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Social responsibility attributes have been included in some, but not many, food and beverage choice studies. Vlaeminck et al. (2016) assessed consumer WTP for a Fair Trade (FT) chocolate product in Belgium. These general results also show that while most people (70%) believed the FT-statement, not everyone care about these issues personally. Consumers valued the FT-label with a positive WTP of €0.84/100g for the standard FT label and $1.22 for the Bio-FT label. This equates to 207% and 301% premiums, respectively, relative to the standard supermarket price. WTP values for different FT-sub-attributes were between €2.25 and €3.76 (up to 928% premium); hence consumers valued the bundle of FT attributes more than the plain FT labels. The results of the plain FT-label valuation are comparable to the price premium operated in supermarkets indicating that consumer surplus is effectively captured.BelgiumEuropeOtherchocolatefair trade, certification
Wang, J., Ge, J. and Ma, Y. (2018). Urban Chinese Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Pork with Certified Labels: A Discrete Choice Experiment. Sustainability, 10 (2018); doi:10.3390/su10030603.Wang et al. (2018) used a discrete choice experiment to determine urban Chinese consumers' WTP for pork products with certified labels for organic production, green food production, food safety, location of origin, and free from veterinary drug residues. Choice experiments were carried out in two Chinese provinces (Jiangsu and Anhui) with results showing a greater WTP for all attributes by Jiangsu consumers, with generally higher WTP for organic food, followed by green food and free from veterinary drug residues across both provinces.ChinaAsiaMeatporkcertification, organic, food safety, country-of-origin, production methods
Wang, L., Wang, J., and Huo, X. (2019). Consumer's willingness to pay a premium for organic fruits in China: A double-hurdle analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16; 126-139.Wang, Wang and Huo (2019) conducted a double hurdle analysis to investigate consumers' WTP of organic fruits in China. 407 surveys were collected across nine Chinese cities. The most important factors influencing willingness to pay a premium involved positive attitudes toward organic label, attention to fruit safety, the perception of importance of fruit attributes. Two consumer groups were identified; those willing to pay a premium (n=250) and those unwilling to pay a premium (n=157). The respondents in the WTP group rated the nutritional value (47.6%) comparatively highly when compared to the UWTP group (18.5%). ChinaAsiaHorticulturefruitorganic, food safety, generic attributes
Wongprawmas, R. and Canavari, M. (2017). Consumers' willingness-to-pay for food safety labels in an emerging market: The case of fresh produce in Thailand. Food Policy, 69; 25-34. In a developing economy context, Wongprawmas and Canavari (2017) examined Thai consumers' WTP for fresh produce with associated food safety credentials, including a product's freshness, brand and food safety information. Food safety labels used in the CE included a generic “safe produce” claim, the well-recognised Q Mark label, as well as well-known and trusted produce brands “Royal Project” and “Doctor's Vegetables”, both of which may also use the Q Mark label. There was a range of WTP for different brand and food safety information credentials in relation to Chinese cabbages among Thai consumers, with trusted private brands Royal Project and Doctor's Vegetables receiving the highest WTP.ThailandAsiaHorticulturefresh producefood safety, certification
Wu, L., Wang, H., Zhu, D. Hu, W. and Wang, S. (2016). Chinese consumers' willingness to pay for pork traceability information – the case of Wuxi. Agricultural Economics, 47(1); 71-79.Wu et al. (2016) examined Chinese consumers' WTP in relation to pork products for different types of traceability information, including farming, slaughter and processing, distribution and marketing, and government certification information against a base of a pork product without traceability information. Consistent with previous studies, WTP was positive but varied between the two methods used (real choice experiments and experimental auctions) and the types of information provided, with consumers showing higher WTP across both experiments for government certification information and farming information.ChinaAsiaMeatporktraceability
Wu, L., Wang, S., Zhu, D., Hu, W. and Wang, H. (2015). Chinese consumers' preferences and willingness to pay for traceable food quality and safety attributes: The case of pork. China Economic Review, 35; 121-136.Wu et al. (2015) explored consumer preferences and WTP for a traceability and certification information for pork meat. The sample consisted of consumers in seven Chinese cities. Each respondent was classified by their level of income and education. The provision of product traceability information had the highest WTP (ranging from 42% to 91% premiums of base price) for full traceability over no information. Regarding quality certification, most consumers were willing to pay more (ranging from 104% to 149% premiums of base price) for government certification over no certification. The high profile consumers were the only group that valued third-party certification (over no certification), consistent with findings that higher education and income are related to the WTP for traceability certification. ChinaAsiaMeatporktraceability, certification, generic attributes
Wu, L., Yin, S., Xu, Y. and Zhu, D. (2014). Effectiveness of China's organic food certification policy: Consumer preferences for infant milk formula with different organic certification labels. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 62(4); 545-568.In China, Wu et al. (2014) assessed consumers' WTP for organic infant formula, as well as food safety risk perceptions and level of knowledge. The CE attributes included organic label, COO brand (including two Chinese and two foreign brands) and product price. The study was conducted in Shandong province,with 1254 completed responses. Respondents' knowledge and understanding of organic food were relatively low while the perception regarding the food safety risk were relatively high. Consumers had a higher average WTP of $5-$10 (or 36-69% of the base price) for the EU and US-based organic labels than for the Chinese label (vs no label). These WTP estimates increased if the level of knowledge and the level of perceived food safety risk were higher, up to 112% and 86%, respectively. ChinaAsiaDairyinfant formulaorganic, country-of-origin
Xu, P and Zeng, Y.C. (2014). Factors that affect willingness to pay for red wines in China. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 26(5); 426-439.Xu and Zeng (2014) compared results using conditional logit and mixed logit models to examine Chinese consumers' WTP for red wine attributes. Table A65 shows differences in WTP estimates produced through the use of each method.ChinaAsiaViticulturewinecountry-of-origin, grape variety/vintage
Xu, P., Zeng, Y.C., Song, S. and Lone, T. (2014). Willingness to pay for red wines in China. Journal of Wine Research, 25(4); 265-280.Xu et al. (2014) used a mixed Logit model to examine Chinese consumers' WTP for country-of-origin, vintage and brand attributes in relation to red wine for personal consumption and gifting purposes. Chinese consumer WTP for red wine attributes differ depending on context (e.g. for personal consumption or gifting), with negative WTP shown for Chinese wines for gifting, as well as unanimously for non-branded wine products.ChinaAsiaViticulturewinecountry-of-origin, grape variety/vintage
Yang, W., and Renwick, A. (2019). Consumer willingness to pay price premiums for credence attributes of livestock products – A meta-analysis. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 70(3); 618-639.Yang and Renwick (2019) conducted a meta-analysis of credence attributes for livestock products. To do this, the authors conducted a systematic literature review and applied a meta-regression analysis in an effort to introduce some generality to WTP studies. The applied regression model highlighted that in the red meat sample there is a higher WTP for beef products than for lamb, with organic production associated with the highest price premium, and environmentally friendly attributes values the least by consumers. In terms of dairy products, food safety was associated with the highest price premium, and environmentally friendly the lowest. In addition, WTP estimates were modelled based on the meta-regression results with the study year was set after 2010 to capture recent market demand for livestock products. North America, Europe, Asia, AustralasiaMeat, Dairy beef, lamb, dairyanimal welfare, organic, production methods, traceability, local production, country-of-origin, nutritional content, functional food, social responsibility, environment, certification, carbon footprint, water use, genetic modification, generic attributes
Yormirzoev, M., Li, T., and Teuber, R. (2021). Consumers' willingness to pay for organic versus all-natural milk – Does certification make a difference? International Journal of Consumer Studies, 45(5); 1020-1029.Yormirzoev et al (2021) investigated whether milk certification makes a difference to consumers by examining WTP for organic versus all-natural milk in Russia. 608 consumers were surveyed about the variables of frequency of consumption, awareness of organic farming, belief of Russian certification adherence, belief of Western certification adherence, food safety versus money saving, and risk attitudes. The authors found that 51% of respondents had a positive WTP for organic versus conventional milk. The major factors in this being perceived health and environmental benefits. However, there was no statistical difference between all-natural and organic milk – highlighting a lack of awareness of the two products with them being used interchangeably.RussiaEuropeDairymilkcertification, organic
Yue, C., Zhao, S. and Kuzma, J. (2015). Heterogeneous Consumer preferences for nanotechnology and genetic-modification technology in food products. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66(2); 308–328.Yue et al. (2015) explored US consumer preferences for nano- and GM-food in the context of a rice product. The CE considered the possible benefits (e.g. better food safety) that these technologies could provide. Four distinct consumer groups were identified. Across all groups, new technologies had a negative WTP, varying between -2 and -89 percent of the base price, thus the conventional production method was preferred. ‘Price oriented' consumers were willing to pay the most for the enhanced nutritional elements (an approximate 10% premium). The remaining three groups were willing to pay most for improved food safety (premiums of between 9 and 136%), with the ‘benefit oriented' group indicating the highest WTP. The results imply that consumer preferences towards nanotechnology can include a complex set of trade-offs.USNorth AmericaArablericefood safety, nutritional content, production methods, environment, sensory attributes
Zanoli, R., Scarpa, R., Napolitano, F., Piasentier, E. Naspetti, S. and Bruschi, V. (2013). Organic label as an identifier of environmentally related quality: A consumer choice experiment on beef in Italy. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 28(1); 70-79.Animal welfare was included in the Zanoli et al. (2013) investigation of consumers' beef product preferences in Italy. In particular, the study contrasted animal welfare with production methods, origin and quality indicators (e.g. fat content and colour). Organic and domestic attributes had the highest relative WTP of between 24 and 26 euros/kg (109% and 206% of base price) respectively.ItalyEuropeMeatbeefanimal welfare
Zhang, C., Bai, J. and Wahl, T.I. (2012). Consumers' willingness to pay for traceable pork, milk, and cooking oil in Nanjing, China. Food Control, 27(1); 21-28.Zhange et al (2012) analyzed consumers' WT) for traceable pork, milk and cooking oil, and its determinants using data from Nanjing, China, with particular focus on the effects of consumer knowledge. The major findings suggest that Nanjing consumers are willing to pay a significant positive price premium for food traceability despite variations across products. Meanwhile, consumers' WTP for food traceability was positively affected by consumer knowledge about food traceability and awareness of food quality- and safety-related certifications. A number of demographics such as income and age also have statistically significant impacts on the WTP.ChinaAsiaMeat, Dairy, Otherpork, milk, cooking oiltraceability, food safety, food quality, certification, information label
Zou, N.-N. and Hobbs, J.E. (2010). The role of labelling in consumers' functional food choices. Paper prepared for presentation at the 1st Joint EAAE/AAEA Seminar “The Economics of Food, Food Choice and Health” Freising, Germany, September 15–17, 2010.Zou and Hobbs (2010) explored consumers' functional food choices and a labelling effect in a context of Omega-3 enriched milk in Canada. The different health claims included heart health, generic health claims and more specific risk reduction claims and disease prevention claims. Consumers were willing to pay, on average, between $0.12 and $0.51 for different health claims ( 6% to 26% more of the conventional milk price). They were also willing to pay, on average, around 12% more for verification (vs. none) with little difference on WTP across the type of verification entity. Looking at the functional ingredient attribute, people were willing to pay, on average, $0.20/litre premium for Omega-3 enriched milk over regular milk, and this WTP was even higher for people with higher income and those with positive attitudes toward functional food in general. CanadaNorth AmericaDairymilkfunctional food, health claim, certification
AERU (2017), Our Land and Water: Beef in California. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes, prefered attributes and production methods, reasons for purchasing NZ products), understanding and associations with Māori culture and food production, country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use (including influencers), and by demographics.USNorth AmericaMeatbeef, ground beef, beef steak, rib-eye steakantibiotic use, genetic modification, organic, environment, animal welfare, traceability, company ownership, country-of-origin, production methods, Māori production
AERU (2017), Our Land and Water: Wine in California. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes, prefered attributes and production methods, reasons for purchasing NZ products), understanding and associations with Māori culture and food production, country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use (including influencers), and by demographics.USNorth AmericaViticulturewinesensory attributes, grape variety/vintage, country-of-origin, certification, information label, production methods, traceability, social responsibility, food safety, organic, Māori production
AERU (2018), Our Land and Water: Kiwifruit in Shanghai. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes, prefered attributes and production methods, reasons for purchasing NZ products), understanding and associations with Māori culture and food production, country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use (including influencers), and by demographics.ChinaAsiaHorticulturekiwifruitcountry-of-origin, Māori production, health claim, nutritional content, food safety, certification, information label, environment, food quality
AERU (2018), Our Land and Water: Yoghurt in Shanghai. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes, prefered attributes and production methods, reasons for purchasing NZ products), understanding and associations with Māori culture and food production, country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use (including influencers), and by demographics.ChinaAsiaDairyyoghurtcountry-of-origin, Māori production, food safety, certification, information label, environment, food quality, nutritional content, sensory attributes, generic attributes, social responsibility, organic, traceability, health claim, genetic modification
AERU (2019), Unlocking Export Prosperity: Beef in China. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes and values), country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use, and by demographics.ChinaAsiaMeat, Otherbeef, alternative proteinscountry-of-origin, food safety, environment, food quality, nutritional content, local production
AERU (2019), Unlocking Export Prosperity: Beef in United Arab Emirates. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes and values), country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use, and by demographics.United Arab EmiratesMiddle EastMeatbeefcountry-of-origin, food safety, environment, food quality, nutritional content, local production
AERU (2019), Unlocking Export Prosperity: Kiwifruit in Japan. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes and values), country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use, and by demographics.JapanAsiaHorticulturekiwifruitcountry-of-origin, food safety, certification, environment, food quality, generic attributes, genetic modification, organic, traceability, carbon footprint
AERU (2019), Unlocking Export Prosperity: Wine in the US. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes and values), country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use, and by demographics.USNorth AmericaViticulturewinecountry-of-origin, certification, information label, environment, food quality, production methods, social responsibility
AERU (2019-20), Unlocking Export Prosperity: Lamb in the UK Before (2019) and during (2020) the COVID-19 crisis. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes and values), country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use, and by demographics.UKEuropeMeat, Otherlamb, alternative proteinscountry-of-origin, antibiotic use, food safety, certification, information label, environment, food quality, genetic modification, production methods, animal welfare, traceability, nutritional content, organic, halal, generic attributes
AERU (2020), Unlocking Export Prosperity: Alternative Protein in the UK. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes and values), country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use, and by demographics.UKEuropeOtheralternative proteinscountry-of-origin, environment, food quality, regenerative agriculture, carbon footprint, animal welfare, free range, genetic modification, generic attributes, organic, water use, food safety, health claim
AERU (2020), Unlocking Export Prosperity: Alternative Protein in the US. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes and values), country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use, and by demographics.USNorth AmericaOtheralternative proteinscountry-of-origin, environment, food quality, regenerative agriculture, carbon footprint, animal welfare, free range, genetic modification, generic attributes, organic, water use, food safety, health claim
AERU (2020), Unlocking Export Prosperity: Apples in the US. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes and values), country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use, and by demographics.USNorth AmericaHorticultureapplescountry-of-origin, generic attributes, sensory attributes, food safety, food quality, certification, production methods, social responsibility, environment, food quality, organic, traceability, Māori production
AERU (2020), Unlocking Export Prosperity: UHT Milk in China. AERU Data PortalThis interactive web tool allows users to explore results of a choice experiment study. Results can be explored by respondents' purchasing habits, preferences (including attitudes and values), country-of-origin understanding and purchasing habits, technology preferences and use, and by demographics.USNorth AmericaDairymilkcountry-of-origin, food safety, certification, environment, food quality, genetic modification, nutritional content, health claim, functional food, generic attributes, production methods, organic, information label

Sources:

  • Timothy Driver, Simon Duff, Tiffany McIntyre, Professor Caroline Saunders. Matrix of Drivers: 2022 Update. Report for Our Land and Water National Science Challenge by Agribusiness & Economics Research Unit (AERU), Lincoln University (PDF)
  • AERU Data Portal, which hosts online tools developed through several research programmes: Maximising Export Returns (2012-2016), funded by Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE); Integrating Value Chains (2017-2019), funded by the Our Land and Water National Science Challenge; and Unlocking Export Prosperity (2019-2024), funded by Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE).

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