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Capacity for Transition

The Collaboration Lab

Determining the role of collaboration in transforming management of land and water

Collaboration Framework

PROJECT DETAILS

Challenge funding: $1,500,000

Research duration: November 2016 – June 2019

What Did We Do?

In New Zealand, adversarial processes have dominated natural resource decision-making processes, leading to stalemate and inaction. The magnitude and complexity of the challenges for New Zealand’s land and water require science and society to interact in new ways. One of these new ways of working is collaboration.

Social science over the past 20 years has emphasised the importance of collaboration for achieving successful outcomes in complex systems. However, there is insufficient long-term evaluation of collaborative approaches, a lack of information about Māori participation in collaborative processes, and a scarcity of studies on how researchers undertake interdisciplinary research. This means collaboration has proven very difficult in practice.

The Collaboration Lab programme aimed to address these gaps. The Collaboration Lab developed case studies from the best collaborations occurring throughout New Zealand, to understand collaborative practice and how to build collaborative capacity. The Collaboration Lab also investigated collaborative policy-making processes, Māori models of engagement, and the impact of transdisciplinary research approaches.

Our goal is for citizens and scientists to be more effective in participating in collaborations, for policy-makers to have greater understanding about how and when to use collaborative processes, and for science research team collaborations to be more effective.

How Can The Research Be Used?

  • The Collaboration Lab developed a practical model of what conditions, capabilities and resourcing are necessary for collaboration to be successful, to be used in designing, evaluating or improving collaborative processes. This model was co-developed with collaboration practitioners across New Zealand. See the key variables diagram.
  • This research is being developed into some practical resources for helping collaborative processes and practices.
  • Community confidence and participation in environmental management decisions were measured in three regions over time – two using collaborative policy-making processes (Northland and Waikato) and one where the collaborative process was not completed (Hawkes Bay). Collaboration Lab researchers found that residents in collaborative catchments perceived water management decision-making to be slightly more responsive to their concerns, but no more effective or fair. This tells us that more needs to be done to:
    • make communities aware of collaborative processes in their catchment,
    • ensure participants are representative of their communities, and
    • demonstrate that these processes are democratic.
  • Members of The Collaboration Lab team developed a model for collaboration based on pōwhiri, to support collaborations with iwi, hapu and Māori communities. The model has been tested and validated by iwi groups, including Nga Rangatahi A Iwi, a group of young Māori future leaders, and will be refined. Watch the video here, or read more in Powhiri as a Tool for Collaboration (PDF).
  • The Collaboration Lab used New Zealand case studies to test the I2S (Integration and Implementation Science) Framework. A significant relationship was found, suggesting that when more elements of the I2S Framework were used in research, end-users found the results more usable, and the research was more effective. This evidence supports Our Land and Water’s commitment to co-innovation and transdisciplinary research and can help researchers. Read the abstract here.
  • Co-innovation across the full Our Land and Water research programme is supported via Collaboration Lab workshops and training in integrated and transdisciplinary research practice. Half of the journal publications published or submitted by Our Land and Water researchers had stakeholders as co-authors by mid-2018, and frequency of collaboration increased by 66% (from 1.6 to 2.6 institutes per research programme). Challenge-funded programmes maintain an average of 5.3 collaborations.

In the Media

Five Principles of Co-innovation

Integration and Implementation Insights, 16 July 2019

Helen Percy offers her insight into what co-innovation is, and how it can be applied in practice in a research project.

VIEW ARTICLE →
Unintended consequences of honouring what communities value and aspire to

Integration and Implementation Insights, 26 January 2017

A lesson learnt for boundary setting was that starting with what the community wants leads to a much broader array of desirable outcomes and exposes the limitations of what can be predicted.

VIEW ARTICLE →
Powhiri: An indigenous example of collaboration from New Zealand

Integration and Implementation Insights, 8 December 2016

Bringing people together around an issue such as water through a powhiri process can mean mana is recognised. Not only is the mana of the participants considered, but the mana of water and the mana of the issues related to water are considered too.

VIEW ARTICLE →

Community Involvement

  • The Collaboration Lab was itself a collaborative project, which connected with about 150 people through its research.
  • The research was guided by the problems and questions facing 37 New Zealanders using collaboration practices in their work. Of these, 16 participated in a collaborative group (2017–2018). You can explore their connections and read and watch conversations about their collaborative practises at the Starmap. Read about how this was developed in Making Practice Visible (PDF, draft). The Collaboration Lab practitioners group continues to build one another’s collaboration capabilities at the Koaro website.
  • A dissemination symposium was held for Southland, in collaboration with Environment Southland and Department of Conservation (DoC).
  • A Collaboration Counterfactual symposium asking when not to use collaboration was held with 20 individuals with experience in collaboration, from AgResearch, Department of Conservation, Deer Industry New Zealand, Manaaki Whenua, Environment Canterbury, Hawke’s Bay Regional Council, Ravensdown, DairyNZ, ESR and Australia National University.
  • Collaboration Lab researchers developed a useful tool for transdisciplinary research called the Outcome Spaces Framework. An Outcome Spaces Framework workshop to test the tool was held for the four environmental National Science Challenges: Our Land and Water, Biological Heritage, Deep South and Resilience to Nature's Challenges.
  • The Collaboration Lab convened a New Zealand co-conference of the International Transdisciplinarity Conference 2017 in Leuphana, Germany. View the presentations from the conference here.
  • Public lecture to University of Third Age on collaboration and social licence to farm in New Zealand.
  • Public workshop on collaborative practice.

Team Snapshot

Research Outputs

PAPERS

Transferring the impacts of pilot-scale studies to other scales: Understanding the role of non-biophysical factors using field-based irrigation studies

Graeme Nicholas, MS Srinivasan, Sam Beechener, Jeff Foote, Melissa Robson-Williams, Stephen FitzHerbert
Agricultural Water Management, April 2020

Researchers are challenged to design research that can generate credible claims regarding cross-scale impact and adoption. However, the context in which new knowledge or innovation is developed and tested may differ from that for the uptake and use of those findings. This paper reports insight into the problem of designing impactful research and proposes a model to assist bio-physical researchers in accounting for non-biophysical context when moving between scales or settings. The use of the model is illustrated by application in two New Zealand-based irrigation water use efficiency (WUE) field studies. We developed a social dynamics model (Composite Context Model, CCM) from existing social systems frameworks. By demonstrating the use of our CCM for documenting key non-biophysical variables, we aim to equip researchers with a practical tool to assist in the interpretation of findings across contexts, that include both biophysical and non-biophysical factors.

Assessing research impact potential: using the transdisciplinary Outcome Spaces Framework with New Zealand’s National Science Challenges

Ronlyn Duncan, Melissa Robson-Williams & Dena Fam
Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, January 2020

Calls for science to have impact as well as excellence have been loud and clear from research funders, policymakers and research institutions for some time. Transdisciplinary research (TDR) is expected to deliver impact by connecting scientists with stakeholders and end users to co-produce knowledge to respond to complex issues. While New Zealand’s science system is geared to deliver excellence, its capability to also deliver impact beyond academic institutions is less clear. This paper firstly presents findings from testing innovations to the TDR Outcome Spaces Framework (OSF+) with four National Science Challenges (NSCs). We conclude that OSF+ is a useful tool for planning for multiple outcomes and assessing the potential for impact. Secondly, it presents findings of how using OSF+ to assess research impact potential revealed a range of implicit theories of change (i.e. catalyst, deficit, engagement and collaboration) across the NSCs.

Forging future organizational leaders for sustainability science

J. Gordon, K. Bawa, G. Bammer, C. Boone, J. Dunne, D. Hart, J. Hellmann, A. Miller, M. New, J. Ometto, S. Pickett, G. Wendorf, A. Agrawal, P. Bertsch, C. D. Campbell, P. Dodd, A. Janetos, H. Mallee, K. Taylor
Nature Sustainability, July 2019

Our Land and Water director Ken Taylor contributed to this paper in Nature Sustainability, with thinking influenced by the work of the Collaboration Lab. Leaders of sustainability research organizations need to provide an environment where interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary science flourish. Developing the necessary leadership skills and attributes requires new, targeted training programmes.

Transformation is ‘Experienced, Not Delivered’: Insights from grounding the discourse in practice to inform policy and theory

Duncan, R., Robson-Williams, M., Nicholas, G., Turner, J., Smith, R., Diprose, D.
Sustainability, 2018

Drawing on perspectives of practitioners involved in working with communities to bring about change in how land and water are managed, the research provides insights on where transformation takes place, what the first step of transformation might look like, and what might be deemed transformational. The paper also builds on social practice theory to produce an explanatory model of transformational capacity.

The changing role of science and scientists in supporting community-centered land and water policy processes in Canterbury, New Zealand

Robson-Williams, M., Norton, N., Davie, T., Taylor, K., Kirk, N.
Case Studies in the Environment, October 2018

In this case study, we examine the role of science and scientists in community-led collaborative policy processes. We outline the shift from science-led linear policy processes to community-led science-informed policy processes. From this experience, a set of principles for scientists working in these environments was created. 

How to improve water governance in multifunctional irrigation systems? Balancing stakeholder engagement in hydrosocial territories

Ricart, S., Rico, A., Kirk, N., Bülow, F., Ribas-Palom, A., Pavón, D.
International Journal of Water Resources Development, 2018

An evidence-based analysis of stakeholder engagement in decision-making processes affecting multifunctional irrigation systems. The case studies show how stakeholder engagement in irrigation systems shapes hydrosocial territories.

Collaborative Planning in Response to Policy Failure: The Case of Freshwater Management in Canterbury, Aotearoa New Zealand

Kirk, N.
Case Studies in the Environment, January 2017

This article identifies the factors behind a shift to collaborative planning in regional freshwater management. The case study explores the Canterbury Regional Council’s failure to create authoritative policy, and subsequent pursuit of collaborative planning mechanisms for freshwater management in the region.

CONFERENCE PAPERS

Collaborative expert judgement analysis of uncertainty associated with catchment-scale nitrogen load modelling with OVERSEER®

Zeb Etheridge, L Fietje, A Metherell, L Lilburne, O Mojsilovich, M Robson, K Steele and M Hanson
Farm environmental planning – Science, policy and practice. Occasional Report No. 31. Fertilizer and Lime Research Centre, Massey University. 2018

The widespread view that use of OVERSEER®-derived N loss estimates to set catchment-scale nutrient limits is an inappropriate use of this tool needs to be addressed to maximise stakeholder acceptance of these limits. Accounting for uncertainty is the best way to deal with this issue. This paper shows how a formal expert judgement elicitation framework was used to approximately quantify uncertainty around catchment-scale modelled N loss rates.

The Collaboration Lab: The transformative role of collaboration in managing our land and water

Robson, M., Bammer, G., Barker, P., Foote, J., Greenhalgh, S., Haremate, G., Lauder, G., Nicholas, G., Small, B., Smith, R., Williams, R., von Pein, T.
Science and policy: Nutrient management challenges for the next generation. Occasional Report No. 30. Fertilizer and Lime Research Centre, Massey University. 2017

The Collaboration Lab has four aims: three research aims and a capacity-building aim. The research aims are: to understand how collaborative practice contributes to multiple outcomes; to build evidence of whether collaboration is successful in delivering multiple outcomes; to enhance understanding of critical factors that affect the impact of research in land and water. The capacity-building aim is to build collaborative practice and capacity in New Zealand for both collaboration practitioners and researchers.

REPORTS

Evolving Public Perceptions of Freshwater Management in Three New Zealand Regions

Pamela Booth, Pike Brown, Jim Sinner
Manaaki Whenua report, June 2017

Community Perceptions of Collaborative Freshwater Planning: A survey in three New Zealand region

Jim Sinner, Mark Newton, Pike Brown
Cawthron Institute, Report No 2844. April 2016

CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS

The Collaboration Lab

Melissa Robson-Williams
Our Land and Water Symposium, 12 August 2019

Video: https://vimeo.com/356109767

Enabling collaborative practice: a practical model

Graeme Nicholas
Our Land and Water Symposium 2019, 12 August 2019

Video: https://vimeo.com/356109767

Ecologies of Expertise: Re-Evaluating Brokering in Knowledge Co-Production

Duncan, R., Robson, M., Edwards, S.
Society for Social Studies of Science (4S), September 2018

Sink or swim: A radical overhaul to water policy-making approach in New Zealand. A case study of lake Te Waihora

Robson-Williams, M
4th International water resources and wetlands conference, Tulcea, September 2018

Examining co-production and the role of brokers within New Zealand’s ‘science advisory ecosystem’

Duncan, R., Robson, M., Edwards, S.
A crisis in expertise: Legitimacy and the challenge of policymaking conference, Melbourne. February 2018

Towards an improved understanding and management of uncertainty in science investigations of environment policy options

Lilburne, L., Robson-Williams, M., Norton, N., Etheridge, Z.
9th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, 2018

Practice that reveals the essential gestures of collaboration, through emergence, and propagates intercultural capacity

Lauder, G., Barker, P. P
New Zealand co-conference to International Transdisciplinarity Conference, Germany. September 2017

Video

Collaboration as an emergent property

Jeff Foote, Graeme Nicholas
New Zealand co-conference to International Transdisciplinarity Conference, Germany. September 2017

Video

Visions of collaboration: An Integration and Implementation Framework (I2S) analysis of 3 primary sector co-innovation projects

Small, B., Payne, P., Robson, M., Bammer, G.
New Zealand co-conference to International Transdisciplinarity Conference, Germany. September 2017

Video

Road testing the I2S framework for delivering more fit for purpose science for policy

Robson, M., Small, B., Williams, R., Haremate, G., Smith R., Bammer, G.
New Zealand co-conference to International Transdisciplinarity Conference, Germany. September 2017

Video

Powhiri: An indigenous example of collaboration from New Zealand

Rawiri Smith
New Zealand co-conference to International Transdisciplinarity Conference, Germany. September 2017

Video

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Powhiri as a tool for Collaboration

Whatahoro Cribb-Fox with Matariki Cribb-Fox
Short film, 20 June 2019

Insight into how all New Zealanders can use the elements of Powhiri as a guide for collaborations, creatively told through film.

Cultivating Citizenship, Collaboration & Contribution (Part 1)

Glen Lauder and Phill Barker
Blog, 29 June 2019

A subjectively held practice model is one of the key tools (in what Peter Westerby calls Implicate Method). We came to witness the power of developing an individual subjective practice model through our work with collaborative groups, especially through our work with the Practitioner Fellowship, which had a developmental as well as a critical purpose, and with citizens — everywhere. This is some of the reflective work we’ve been engaging in. Plenty far to go!

Cultivating Citizenship, Collaboration, Contribution (Part 2)

Glen Lauder
Blog, 29 June 2019

The leading edge of innovation in collaboration is found on the ground, in new patterns of practice rather than in theory and the Collaboration Lab will bring together leading collaboration practitioners from across multiple fields to exchange across their experiences in collaboration practices, to test and develop their and our understanding of more effective methods in collaboration processes. The Collaboration Laboratory is inspired in part by the concept and evidence of social laboratories.

Common Ground

Glen Lauder
Blog, 30 June 2019

This post (CommonGround) and its pair (UncommonGround), unfold eight touch stones of practice inside a framework and practice of implicate citizenship — or citizens as active members of community and practitioners of citizenship. In CommonGround we take a developmental lens on four touchstones of citizenship as practice.

Uncommon Ground

Glen Lauder
Blog, 26 June 2019

This post (Uncommon Ground) unfold four of eight touch stones and its pair (Common Ground), another four. These are proposed as touch stones of practice inside a framework and practice of implicate citizenship. Uncommon Ground applies a reconstructive lens to four touchstones of citizenship as practice.

Citizenship and Practice — A Developmental Lens

Glen Lauder
Blog, 30 June 2019

In this small family of posts, I draw extensively — to dive deeply and practically into with others — on a method and practice frameworks developed by Anthony Kelly and Peter Westoby, based in Queensland Australia, from their experience in many parts of the globe. They distingish five methods — named Micro, Mezzo, Macro, Meta and Implicate. In another post in this family, I take a developmental lens to unfold four of these methods: Micro, Mezzo, Macro, Meta. This framework seems deeply helpful to bring some order to our citizen experience.

Citizenship and Practice — A Reconstructive Lens

Glen Lauder
Blog, 30 June 2019

In this small family of posts, I draw extensively — to dive deeply and practically into with others — on a method and practice frameworks developed by Anthony Kelly and Peter Westoby, based in Queensland Australia, from their experience in many parts of the globe. In two other posts in this family, I take first a developmental lens to unfold four methods: Micro, Mezzo, Macro, Meta, and then what I'm calling here a re-constructive lens to explore three principles and arrive at the fifth of Kelly and Westoby’s methods, Implicate.

Home Ground

Glen Lauder
Blog, 30 June 2019

This post offers a back of the envelope roadmap for how to navigate between these pieces of writing on practice as citizenship. Over the last decade, close colleagues and I have been exploring many ways of developing (in ourselves and others) new capacities to work collaboratively, compassionately, and creatively.

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