Publication: Ambio - A Journal of the Human Environment
Author(s): Jian Liu , Peter J. A. Kleinman, Helena Aronsson, Don Flaten, Richard W. McDowell, Marianne Bechmann, Douglas B. Beegle, Timothy P. Robinson, Ray B. Bryant, Hongbin Liu, Andrew N. Sharpley, Tamie L. Veith
Winter manure application elevates nutrient losses and impairment of water quality compared to applications in other seasons. We reviewed worldwide mandatory regulations and voluntary guidelines on efforts to reduce off-site nutrient losses associated with winter manure applications. Most of the developed countries implement regulations or guidelines. Developing countries lack such official directives, despite increasing concern over water quality. An analysis of five case studies reveals that directives are affected by local socio-economic and biophysical considerations. Successful programs combine site-specific management strategies along with expansion of manure storage to offer farmers greater flexibility in winter manure management.